Notes from the Preface

spectrum and network measurements book coverHere’s an excerpt from the preface of the second edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements that provides some insight into the creation of this book:

This book is about the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It is intended for readers who have a background in electrical engineering and use spectrum analyzers and network analyzers to characterize electronic signals or systems.

This is the book that I wish someone had handed me when I started my career as an electrical engineer. This work was formed from thousands of interactions with my fellow engineers at HP, Agilent Technologies, and now Keysight Technologies about this or that measurement challenge. My target reader is the recent electrical engineering graduate or an engineer recently tossed into the challenge of performing spectrum or network measurements. For inspiration, I often think about the electrical engineering students I have taught and then write with the goal of helping them apply that big pile of electrical theory in their heads.

Since the first edition was written, the body of knowledge in this area has grown dramatically. Rather than triple the size of the book, I chose to keep it focused on the core measurement principles and list key references for further study. This second edition does reflect the dramatic impact of digital technology, driving significant change in the systems being measured, and the technology used inside the measuring instruments. Every chapter of the book has been impacted by this important shift.

– BobW

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Reviews of Spectrum & Network Measurements

spectrum and network measurements book coverReviews of the second edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements are starting to appear on the web.  

Ben Zarlingo writes the RF Test Blog for Keysight Technologies. See his review here: Spectrum and Network Measurements: A non-eBook.

Ken Wyatt writes about EMC topics for various publications. His review appears on the EDN web site: Review: Spectrum and Network Measurements (2nd Edition).

Over at Microwaves and RF, Jack Browne wrote a very nice article: Book Review: Spectrum and Network Measurements, 2nd Edition.

Thanks to these guys for taking the time to review my book.

– BobW

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Spectrum and Network Measurements, 2nd Edition

 

spectrum and network measurements book coverThe second edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements is now available!

This is an update to the classic, easy-to-understand book on frequency domain measurements. This book has been updated to include the latest technology, especially the shift from analog to digital in communication systems. The book also includes a completely new chapter on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) measurements.

Available from Stylus Publishing and Amazon.

 

 

Spectrum and Network Measurements, 2nd Edition
by Robert A. Witte
ISBN-13: 978-1613530146; ISBN-10: 1613530145
©2014 SciTech Publishing

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction to Spectrum and Network Measurements
Signals and Systems • Time Domain and Frequency Domain Relationships •
System Transfer Function • Advantages of using Frequency Domain Measurements • Spectrum Measurements • Network Measurements • Combined Spectrum/Network Analyzers • Modular Instruments

Chapter 2. Decibels
Definition of the Decibel • Cardinal Values • Absolute Decibel Values • Gain and Loss Calculations • Decibels and Percent • Error Expressed in Decibels

Chapter 3. Fourier Theory
Periodicity • Fourier Series • Fourier Series of a Square Wave • Fourier Series of Other Waveforms • Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform of a Pulse • Inverse Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform Relationships • Discrete Fourier Transform • Limitations of the DFT • Fast Fourier Transform • Relating Theory to Measurements • Finite Measurement Time • Fourier Series of Other Waveforms • Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform of a Pulse • Inverse Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform Relationships • Discrete Fourier Transform • Limitations of the DFT • Fast Fourier Transform • Relating Theory to Measurements • Finite Measurement Time

Chapter 4. Fast Fourier Transform Analyzers
The Bank-of-Filters Analyzer • Frequency Resolution • The FFT Analyzer • Sampled Waveform • Sampling Theorem • FFT Properties • Controlling the Frequency Span • Band Selectable Analysis • Leakage • Hanning Window • Flattop Window • Uniform Window • Exponential Window • Selecting a Window Function • Oscillator Characterization • Spectral Maps • Time Domain Display • Network Measurements • Electronic Filter Characterization • Cross-Power Spectrum • Coherence • Correlation • Autocorrelation • Cross-Correlation • Histogram • Real-Time Bandwidth • Real-Time Bandwidth and RMS Averaging • Real-Time Bandwidth and Transients • Overlap Processing • Swept Sine • Octave Measurements

Chapter 5. Swept Spectrum Analyzers
The Wave Analyzer • Heterodyne Block Diagram • The Swept Spectrum Analyzer • Practical Considerations • Input Section • Resolution Bandwidth • Sweep Limitations • Specialized Sweep Modes • Local Oscillator Feedthrough • Digital IF Section • Types of Detectors • The Tracking Generator • FFT versus Swept Measurements • Modern Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagrams • Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer • Types of Spectrum Analyzers

Chapter 6. Modulation Measurements
The Carrier • Amplitude Modulation • AM Measurements • Zero-Span Operation • Other Forms of Amplitude Modulation • Angle Modulation • Narrowband Angle Modulation • Wideband Angle Modulation • FM Measurements • Combined AM and FM • Digital Modulation • Quadrature Modulation • Common Digital Modulation Formats • Error Vector Magnitude • Channel Measurements

Chapter 7. Distortion Measurements
The Distortion Model • Single-Tone Input • Two-Tone Input • Higher-Order Models • The Intercept Concept • Harmonic Distortion Measurements • Use of Low-Pass Filter on Source • Intermodulation Distortion Measurements • Distortion Internal to the Analyzer

Chapter 8. Noise and Noise Measurements
Statistical Nature of Random Noise • Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation • Power Spectral Density • Frequency Distribution of Noise • Equivalent Noise Bandwidth • Noise Units and Decibel Relationships • Noise Measurement • Automatic Noise Level Measurement • Noise Floor • Correction for Noise Floor • Phase Noise

Chapter 9. Pulse Measurements
Spectrum of a Pulsed Waveform • Effective Pulse Width • Line Spectrum • Pulse Spectrum • Pulsed RF • Pulse Desensitization

Chapter 10. Averaging and Filtering
Predetection Filtering • Predetection Filters • Postdetection Filtering • Postdetection Filters • Averaging • Variance Ratio • General Averaging • Linear Weighting • Exponential Weighting • Averaging in Spectrum and Network Analyzers • RMS Average • Vector Averaging • Smoothing • Averaging versus Filtering

Chapter 11. Transmission Lines
The Need for Transmission Lines • Distributed Model • Characteristic Impedance • Propagation Velocity • Generator, Line, and Load • Impedance Changes • Sinusoidal Voltages • Complex Reflection Coefficient • Return Loss • Standing Waves • Input Impedance of a Transmission Line • Measurement Error Due to Impedance Mismatch • Insertion Gain and Loss • Line Losses • Coaxial Lines

Chapter 12. Measurement Connections
The Loading Effect • Maximum Voltage and Power Transfer • High-Impedance Inputs • Active High-Impedance Probes • Z0 Impedance Inputs • Input Connectors • Z0 Terminations • Power Dividers and Splitters • Attenuators • Return Loss Improvement • The Classical Attenuator Problem • Impedance Matching Devices • Measurement Filters

Chapter 13. Two-Port Networks
Sinusoidal Signals • The Transfer Function • Improved Two-Port Model • Impedance Parameters • Admittance Parameters • Hybrid Parameters • Transmission Parameters • Scattering Parameters • Transfer Function and S21 • Why S-Parameters?

Chapter 14. Network Analyzers
Basic Network Measurements • Oscilloscope and Sweep Generator • Network Measurements Using a Spectrum Analyzer • Vector Network Analyzer • Directional Bridges and Couplers • S-Parameter Test Set • Modern Vector Network Analyzer Configurations • Sweep Limitations • Power Sweep • Flexible Source Frequency • VNA Time Domain Measurements • Nonlinear VNA Measurements

Chapter 15. Vector Network Measurements
Distortionless Transmission • Nonlinearity • Linear Distortion • Importance of Linear Phase • Group Delay • Normalization • Measurement Plane • Reflection Measurements • Directional Bridges and Couplers • Reflection Configuration • Reflection Normalization • Error in Reflection Measurements • Vector Error Correction • Normalization Revisited • Two-Term Error Correction • Three-Term Error Correction • Two-Port Error Correction

Chapter 16. EMC Measurements
Electromagnetic Compatibility • Radiated Emissions • Antennas • Near Field and Far Field • EMI Receiver Requirements • Peak, Quasi-Peak, and Average Detectors • Conducted Emissions • Line Impedance Stabilization Network • EMC Troubleshooting • Near-Field Probes • Current Probe • Preamplifiers

Chapter 17. Analyzers Performance and Specifications
Source Specifications • Receiver Characteristics • Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range • Network Analyzer Specifications

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Coming Soon: Second Edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements

spectrum and network measurements book coverThe second edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements is under development and will hit the bookstore shelves before the end of the year. It is available for preorder now at Amazon.

This is an update to the classic, easy-to-understand book on frequency domain measurements.

Connects Theory to Practice – this book picks up where most electrical engineering programs stop, taking the basic EE theory and translating to the world of electronic measurements

Use of Simplified Block Diagrams – this book keeps the instrument complexity inside a black box, exposing just what the reader needs to know to apply the concepts

Completely Updated – this classic book has been updated to include the latest technology, especially the shift from analog to digital in communication systems. The book also includes a completely new chapter on EMC measurements.

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Electronic Test Instruments: Analog and Digital Measurements

Electronic Test Instruments CoverElectronic Test Instruments: Analog and Digital Measurements, 2nd Edition

by Robert A. Witte
ISBN-10: 0130668303 • ISBN-13: 978-0130668301
©2002 • Prentice Hall • Paper, 400 pp
Electronic Test Instruments: Analog and Digital Measurements, Second Edition offers a thorough, unified, up-to-date survey of the entire field of electronic instrumentation: instruments and techniques, digital and analog. Robert A. Witte first introduces basic measurement theory, then covers each type of commonly used electronic test equipment. Using detailed examples, the author shows how these systems are applied in real-world applications, introducing core functionality and showing how to choose the right instrument for each task. This new second edition has been updated throughout, reflecting the latest technologies and presenting extensive new coverage of digital oscilloscopes and power supplies.

Order from Pearson Education

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Table of Contents

1. Measurement Theory.

Electrical Quantities. Resistance. Polarity. Direct Current. Power. Alternating Current. RMS Value. Average Value. Crest Factor. Phase. AC Power. Nonsinusoidal Waveforms. Harmonics. Square Wave. Pulse Train. Combined DC and AC. Modulated Signals. Decibels. Absolute Decibel Values. Measurement Error. The Loading Effect. The Voltage Divider. Maximum Voltage Transfer. Maximum Power Transfer. Impedance. Instrument Inputs. Bandwidth. Rise Time. Bandwidth Limitation on Square Wave Digital Signals. Logic Families. References.

2. Voltmeters, Ammeters, and Ohmmeters Meters.

DC Voltmeters. AC Voltmeters. RF Probes. Ammeters. Ammeter Used as a Voltmeter. Voltmeter Used as an Ammeter. Current-Sense Resistor. AC Ammeter. Ohmmeters. Voltmeter-Ammeter Method. Series Ohmmeter. Current-Source Method. 4-Wire Ohms Measurements. Multimeters. Meter Range. Other Multimeter Functions. Specifications. References.

3. Signal Sources.

Circuit Model. Floating and Grounded Outputs. Sine Wave Sources. Imperfections in Sine Wave Sources. Function Generators. Pulse Generators. RF Signal Generators. Summary of Signal Sources. References.

4. The Oscilloscope Concept.

Analog Scope Block Diagram. Digital Scope Block Diagram. Sample Rate. Real-Time Sampling. Repetitive Sampling. Triggering. Acquisition/Sweep Control. Vertical Amplifier. Vertical Resolution. AC and DC Coupling. Bandwidth Limit. X-Y Display Mode. High Impedance Inputs. 50-W Inputs. Digital Acquisition and Display Techniques. Oscilloscope Specifications. Scopesmanship. Mixed Signal Oscilloscope. Oscilloscope Probes. Probe Compensation. Active Probes. Differential Measurements. High-Voltage Probe. Current Probes. References.

5. Basic Waveform Measurements.

Voltage Gain Measurement. Phase Measurement. Frequency Measurement (Lissajous Method). Digital Signal Measurement. Frequency Response Measurement. Square Wave Test. Linearity Measurement. Curve Tracer Measurement Technique. Diode I-V Characteristic. Resistor I-V Characteristic. Amplitude Modulation Measurement. Power Measurement. FFT Measurements. Basic Time Domain Reflectometry. References.

6. Electronic Counters.

Basic Frequency Counter. Frequency Dividers. Period Measurement. Reciprocal Counter. Universal Counter. Gated Counter Measurements. Timebase Accuracy. Input Impedance. Frequency Counter Specifications. Time Interval Analyzer. References.

7. Power Supplies.

Power Supplies. Circuit Model. Constant-Voltage Operation. Constant-Current Operation. CV-CC Operation. Overvoltage/Overcurrent Protection. Remote Sensing. Measurement Capability. Power Supply Specifications. References.

8. Spectrum and Network Analyzers.

Spectrum Analyzers. Bank-of-Filters Spectrum Analyzer. FFT Spectrum Analyzers. Wavemeters. Resolution Bandwidth. Narrowband and Broadband Measurements. Swept Spectrum Analyzers. Spectrum Analyzer Measurements. Network Analyzers. Distortion Analyzers. RF Power Measurements. RF Power Meter. References.

9. Logic Analyzers.

Logic Probes. Oscilloscope Logic Measurements. Logic Analyzers. Timing Analyzer. Glitch Detect. Digital Logic Test Example. State Analyzer. Data Formats. State Display. Timing Display. Microprocessor Measurement. Storage Qualification. Trigger Events and Sequencing. Microprocessor Program Flow. Logic Analyzer Probing. Combined Scope and Logic Analyzer. PC-Hosted Logic Analyzer. References.

10. Circuits for Electronic Measurements.

Resistance Measurement-Indirect Method. Output Resistance. Input Resistance. Bridge Measurements. RL and RC Circuits. Resonant Circuits. Diode Measurement Circuit. Instrument Connections. Attenuators. Power Splitters and Combiners Measurement Filters. References.
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Spectrum and Network Measurements

Spectrum and Network Meas - 1st EdSpectrum and Network Measurements

by Robert A. Witte

ISBN: 9781884932168
©2001 • SciTech Publishing

This book covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems.

Intended for readers who have a background in electrical engineering and use spectrum or network analyzers to characterize electronic signals or systems, this classic volume successfully consolidates the pertinent theory into one comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements. Witte’s thorough coverage of critical concepts, such as Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters enables the reader to understand the basic theory of signals and systems, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs.

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Table of Contents

Preface

1. Introduction to Spectrum and Network Measurements

2. Decibels

3. Fourier Theory

4. Fast Fourier Transform Analyzers

5. Swept Spectrum Analyzers

6. Modulation Measurements

7. Distortion Measurements

8. Noise and Noise Measurements

9. Pulse Measurements

10. Averaging and Filtering

11. Transmission Lines

12. Measurement Connections

13. Two-Port Networks

14. Network Analyzers

15. Transmission Measurements

16. Reflection Measurements

17. Analyzer Performance and Specifications

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Welcome to Electronic-Measurement.com

Welcome to Electronic-Measurement.com

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