The second edition of *Spectrum and Network Measurements* is now available!

This is an update to the classic, easy-to-understand book on frequency domain measurements. This book has been updated to include the latest technology, especially the shift from analog to digital in communication systems. The book also includes a completely new chapter on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) measurements.

Available from Stylus Publishing and Amazon.

**Spectrum and Network Measurements, 2nd Edition**

by Robert A. Witte

ISBN-13: 978-1613530146; ISBN-10: 1613530145

©2014 SciTech Publishing

**Table of Contents**

**Chapter 1. Introduction to Spectrum and Network Measurements**

Signals and Systems • Time Domain and Frequency Domain Relationships •

System Transfer Function • Advantages of using Frequency Domain Measurements • Spectrum Measurements • Network Measurements • Combined Spectrum/Network Analyzers • Modular Instruments

**Chapter 2. Decibels**

Definition of the Decibel • Cardinal Values • Absolute Decibel Values • Gain and Loss Calculations • Decibels and Percent • Error Expressed in Decibels

**Chapter 3. Fourier Theory**

Periodicity • Fourier Series • Fourier Series of a Square Wave • Fourier Series of Other Waveforms • Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform of a Pulse • Inverse Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform Relationships • Discrete Fourier Transform • Limitations of the DFT • Fast Fourier Transform • Relating Theory to Measurements • Finite Measurement Time • Fourier Series of Other Waveforms • Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform of a Pulse • Inverse Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform Relationships • Discrete Fourier Transform • Limitations of the DFT • Fast Fourier Transform • Relating Theory to Measurements • Finite Measurement Time

** Chapter 4. Fast Fourier Transform Analyzers**

The Bank-of-Filters Analyzer • Frequency Resolution • The FFT Analyzer • Sampled Waveform • Sampling Theorem • FFT Properties • Controlling the Frequency Span • Band Selectable Analysis • Leakage • Hanning Window • Flattop Window • Uniform Window • Exponential Window • Selecting a Window Function • Oscillator Characterization • Spectral Maps • Time Domain Display • Network Measurements • Electronic Filter Characterization • Cross-Power Spectrum • Coherence • Correlation • Autocorrelation • Cross-Correlation • Histogram • Real-Time Bandwidth • Real-Time Bandwidth and RMS Averaging • Real-Time Bandwidth and Transients • Overlap Processing • Swept Sine • Octave Measurements

**Chapter 5. Swept Spectrum Analyzers**

The Wave Analyzer • Heterodyne Block Diagram • The Swept Spectrum Analyzer • Practical Considerations • Input Section • Resolution Bandwidth • Sweep Limitations • Specialized Sweep Modes • Local Oscillator Feedthrough • Digital IF Section • Types of Detectors • The Tracking Generator • FFT versus Swept Measurements • Modern Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagrams • Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer • Types of Spectrum Analyzers

**Chapter 6. Modulation Measurements**

The Carrier • Amplitude Modulation • AM Measurements • Zero-Span Operation • Other Forms of Amplitude Modulation • Angle Modulation • Narrowband Angle Modulation • Wideband Angle Modulation • FM Measurements • Combined AM and FM • Digital Modulation • Quadrature Modulation • Common Digital Modulation Formats • Error Vector Magnitude • Channel Measurements

**Chapter 7. Distortion Measurements**

The Distortion Model • Single-Tone Input • Two-Tone Input • Higher-Order Models • The Intercept Concept • Harmonic Distortion Measurements • Use of Low-Pass Filter on Source • Intermodulation Distortion Measurements • Distortion Internal to the Analyzer

**Chapter 8. Noise and Noise Measurements**

Statistical Nature of Random Noise • Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation • Power Spectral Density • Frequency Distribution of Noise • Equivalent Noise Bandwidth • Noise Units and Decibel Relationships • Noise Measurement • Automatic Noise Level Measurement • Noise Floor • Correction for Noise Floor • Phase Noise

**Chapter 9. Pulse Measurements**

Spectrum of a Pulsed Waveform • Effective Pulse Width • Line Spectrum • Pulse Spectrum • Pulsed RF • Pulse Desensitization

**Chapter 10. Averaging and Filtering**

Predetection Filtering • Predetection Filters • Postdetection Filtering • Postdetection Filters • Averaging • Variance Ratio • General Averaging • Linear Weighting • Exponential Weighting • Averaging in Spectrum and Network Analyzers • RMS Average • Vector Averaging • Smoothing • Averaging versus Filtering

**Chapter 11. Transmission Lines**

The Need for Transmission Lines • Distributed Model • Characteristic Impedance • Propagation Velocity • Generator, Line, and Load • Impedance Changes • Sinusoidal Voltages • Complex Reflection Coefficient • Return Loss • Standing Waves • Input Impedance of a Transmission Line • Measurement Error Due to Impedance Mismatch • Insertion Gain and Loss • Line Losses • Coaxial Lines

**Chapter 12. Measurement Connections**

The Loading Effect • Maximum Voltage and Power Transfer • High-Impedance Inputs • Active High-Impedance Probes • Z0 Impedance Inputs • Input Connectors • Z0 Terminations • Power Dividers and Splitters • Attenuators • Return Loss Improvement • The Classical Attenuator Problem • Impedance Matching Devices • Measurement Filters

**Chapter 13. Two-Port Networks**

Sinusoidal Signals • The Transfer Function • Improved Two-Port Model • Impedance Parameters • Admittance Parameters • Hybrid Parameters • Transmission Parameters • Scattering Parameters • Transfer Function and S21 • Why S-Parameters?

**Chapter 14. Network Analyzers**

Basic Network Measurements • Oscilloscope and Sweep Generator • Network Measurements Using a Spectrum Analyzer • Vector Network Analyzer • Directional Bridges and Couplers • S-Parameter Test Set • Modern Vector Network Analyzer Configurations • Sweep Limitations • Power Sweep • Flexible Source Frequency • VNA Time Domain Measurements • Nonlinear VNA Measurements

**Chapter 15. Vector Network Measurements**

Distortionless Transmission • Nonlinearity • Linear Distortion • Importance of Linear Phase • Group Delay • Normalization • Measurement Plane • Reflection Measurements • Directional Bridges and Couplers • Reflection Configuration • Reflection Normalization • Error in Reflection Measurements • Vector Error Correction • Normalization Revisited • Two-Term Error Correction • Three-Term Error Correction • Two-Port Error Correction

**Chapter 16. EMC Measurements**

Electromagnetic Compatibility • Radiated Emissions • Antennas • Near Field and Far Field • EMI Receiver Requirements • Peak, Quasi-Peak, and Average Detectors • Conducted Emissions • Line Impedance Stabilization Network • EMC Troubleshooting • Near-Field Probes • Current Probe • Preamplifiers

**Chapter 17. Analyzers Performance and Specifications**

Source Specifications • Receiver Characteristics • Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range • Network Analyzer Specifications